Multi-dimensional Exclusion in Urban Spheres

Urbanisation process in India has not been smooth and it has been often seen as the side effects of the development processes such as industrialisations. Therefore, in the initial phase of planning, planned urbanisation has not got due attentions which led to lopsided and haphazard growth of urban centres in India. Thus, reluctant urbanisation and urban processes in India has left its imprint on the major urban problems faced by nearly all urban centres in India. Rising inter and intra- city inequalities are posing social- economic and ecological threats to major urban centres in India. Declining economic growth in rural areas has further pushed the rural vulnerable population to urban areas. These unskilled and vulnerable households are exposed to urban disasters such as insufficient livelihood and unsuitable living environments. The problems associated with the housing and basic amenities are also linked with spatial, economic and social dimensions. Socio- economic variables play important role in accessing basic amenities such as housing, drinking water and sanitation. Economic weaker sections particularly face difficulties in affordability of housing due to rising cost of housing. Urban inequality among various social groups has also increased during last two decades. Causes and consequences of the poverty are also not similar for various social groups. Poor from socially marginalised communities face additional barriers due to denial of equal opportunities in accessing government programmes due to discrimination based on group identity. Thus, group specific barriers faced by socially excluded communities make them more vulnerable than the poor from the dominant social groups. Exclusion and deprivation faced by vulnerable urban population is often interlinked. Economic and social deprivation often is translated to deprivation in housing, education, health and social well-being of the vulnerable households. Given the lower income and social capital, marginalised social groups among the migrants are further pushed to the margins due to exclusionary urban processes. The present study attempts to explore the multiple dimensions of urban inequality and exclusion experienced by vulnerable social groups. The study also aims to suggest policies to make urban landscape more socially inclusive and promoting right to city to all its citizens.